A cropping system is set of crop systems, making up the cropping activities of a farm system. Cropping system comprises all components required for the production of a particular crop and the interrelationships between them and environment. It is a combination of crops in time and space.
Cropping Pattern in Cropping System
It refers to yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops or of crops and fallow on a given area.
Intensive cropping refers to Growing number of crops on the same piece of land during the given period of time. Under Intensive cropping, the turnaround period between one crop and another is minimised through modified land preparation. Cropping intensity is higher in intensive cropping system. Crop intensification technique includes intercropping, relay cropping, sequential cropping, ratoon cropping, etc. It leads to efficient use of available natural resources. It helps in providing enough food for the family, fodder for cattle and generate sufficient cash income for domestic and cultivation expenses
Cropping Intensity: Number of crops cultivated in a piece of land per annum is cropping intensity
Multiple cropping means growing two or more crops on the same field in a year. It is intensification of cropping in time and space dimensions.
- Intercropping: Intercropping is the practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field. There is intercrop competition during all or part of crop growth. It leads to better use of growth resources including light, nutrients and water. It provides yield stability. The various types of intercropping are:
- Mixed intercropping: It is practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously with no distinct row arrangement
- Row intercropping: It is practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously where one or more crops are planted in rows
- Strip intercropping: It is practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously in strips wide enough to permit independent cultivation but narrow enough for the crops to interact agronomically
- Relay intercropping: It is practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously during the part of the life cycle of each. A second crop is planted after the first crop has reached its reproductive stage of growth, but, before it is ready for harvest
- Sequential cropping: The Sequential cropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in sequence on the same field in a farming year. The succeeding crop is planted after the preceding crop has been harvested. Crop intensification is only in time dimension. There is no intercrop competition. The various types of Sequential intercropping are:
- Double, triple and quadruple cropping: Growing two, three and four crops, respectively, on the same land in a year in sequence
- Ratoon cropping: The cultivation of crop re-growth after harvest, although not necessarily for grain.
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