Meteorology | Weather Parameters | Crop-Weather Advisory

Meteorology NABARD Grade A

Meteorology is a branch of science dealing with atmosphere. The physical state of the atmosphere at a given place and time is referred to as “weather”. The study of weather is called ‘meteorology’

Agricultural Meteorology

A branch of applied meteorology which investigates the physical conditions of the environment of growing plants or animal organisms


A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time is called Weather. The different weather elements are solar radiation, temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, rainfall evaporation, etc. is highly variable. It changes constantly sometimes from hour to hour and at other times from day to day.

Weather Parameters

The weather parameters are solar radiation, temperature, soil temperature and light, radiation, pressure, wind, humidity, rainfall evaporation

  • Solar Radiation: Solar energy provides light required for seed germination, leaf expansion, growth of stem and shoot, flowering fruiting and thermal condition necessary for the physiological function of the plant.
  • Temperature:
    1. Cardinal temperature: For each species of plants there are upper (maximum) and lower (minimum) limits of temperature at which growth is nil or negligible and optimum temperature at which growth is maximum. Most of the crop plants grow best at 15 to 30 ºC. Many crop plants die at temperature of 45 to 55 º C..
    2. Cool season crops: The crops which grow best in cool weather period are called cool season crops and are generally grown in winter season (November to February). Most of the cool season crops cease to grow at an average temperature of 30 to 38 ºC. These crops are also called temperate crops
    3. Warm season crops: The important warm season crops are rice, sorghum, maize, sugarcane, pearl millet, groundnut, pigeon pea, cowpea, etc. These crops are also called tropical crops. These crops are generally grown in monsoon and some also in summer season. The cardinal temperature ranges for warm season crops are maximum temperature 45-50 ºC, minimum temperature 15-20 ºC and optimum temperature 30-38 ºC.

Crop-Weather Advisory in Meteorology

It is a known fact that variable weather plays a dominant role in year-to-year fluctuation in crop production; both in rain fed or irrigated agriculture. Though complete avoidance of farm losses due to weather is not possible, however losses can be minimized to a considerable extent by making adjustments, through timely agricultural operation and accurate weather forecasts.

Weather forecasts are of four types, viz.,

  1. Now casting (4 to 5hrs)
  2. Short range forecast (valid for 48 hours)
  3. Medium range (valid for 5 days to a week)
  4. Long-range or seasonal forecast (valid for month to season).

There are multiple agencies providing weather advisories to farmers viz Indian Meteorology Department (IMD), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, DRCSC, National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)  and many more

Pros of Weather Advisory

  • It helps in enhanced preparedness and thereby increased adaptive capacity
  • Sowing/ transplanting of kharif crops based on onset of monsoon.
  • Fertilizer application based on wind conditions.
  • Delay in fertilizer application based on intensity of rain
  • Irrigation at critical stage of the crop.
  • Quantum and timing of irrigation using meteorological threshold.
  • Advisories for timely harvest of crops


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