Introduction to Computer System | Computer System Components

central processing unit ncert class 11th computer science

The computer system consists of computer bundled with hardware and software. The word computer is derived from the word compute. Compute means to calculate.

What is Computer?

A computer is an electronic device that accepts input, process it and generates output. The computer is programmed to accept data, do some processing on it and generates result.

What is Computer System?

The computer system primarily comprised of a central processing unit (CPU), memory, input/output devices and storage devices

Components of Computer System

The components of computer system work together as a single unit to deliver the desired output. The various components of computer system are:

  1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  2. Input Devices
  3. Output Devices

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The CPU is also called as brain of the computer. It is the electronic circuit where actual processing of data takes place. It is also known as processor of computer. It is responsible for all functions and processes.

The CPU is composed of integrated circuits (ICs).

It consists of three major parts:

  1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU performs arithmetic and logic operations. Arithmetic calculations like as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Logical operation like compare numbers, letters, or special characters
  2. Control Unit (CU): The Control Unit controls operations like input, processing and output are performed by control unit. It takes care of step-by-step processing of all operations inside the computer.
  3. Registers: The registers stores data, instructions and intermediate results while processing.

Input Device

The devices through which control signals are sent to a computer are termed as input devices. It translates data from form that humans understand to one that the computer can work with. Example of Input Devices are Keyboard, Mouse, Microphone, Scanner, Webcam etc.

Input devices of computer ncert class 11th computer science

Output Device

The device that receives data from a computer system for display, physical production, etc., is called output device. It converts the electronically generated information into human-readable form. Example of Ouput Devices are Monitor, LCD, Speakers, Projectors, Printers etc.

output devices

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NCERT Class 11th Computer Science Course