Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory of Motivation

The central concept of Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory is that factors which contribute to the job satisfaction are motivators and the factors contributing to job dissatisfaction are hygiene factors which do not provide any motivation.

Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory

Factors in Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory

Herzberg identified two sets of distinct factors. They are known as intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors

  1. Intrinsic factors or Motivation Factors: Intrinsic factors exist within the job. They relate to the job content. They occur at the time of performing the job. They relate to the positive feeling about the job. Thus, they provide job satisfaction. Hence, they provide strong motivation. They are called motivational factors. These factors are needed to keep high levels of job satisfaction and job performance. Some motivation factors are:
    • Achievement
    • Recognition
    • Advancement
    • Work
    • Possibilities of growth
    • Responsibility
  2. Extrinsic factors or hygiene factors: They are related to the conditions under which job is performed. Therefore, they are environmental centred. They relate to the job context. They occur after the work is completed. They are identified as job dissatisfiers and are associated with the negative feeling of the employees. They do not provide any growth in the productivity of the employee. Therefore, they provide no motivation. The presence of these factors at a satisfactory level prevents job dissatisfaction, but they do not provide motivation to the employees. This is the reason that the theory is also known as two factors or duel factor theory. It is also called as motivation-hygiene theory. Some of the hygiene factors are:
    • Company Policy and Administration
    • Technical Supervision
    • Inter-personal relations with Supervisor
    • Inter-personal relations with Peers
    • Inter-personal relations with Subordinates
    • Salary
    • Job Security
    • Personal life
    • Working Conditions
    • Status

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