What is Training and Development – Methods of training

Training is the process through which employees are made capable of doing the jobs prescribed to them. It is an act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing the job assigned to him. However, Development is a long-term educational process by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those activities which improve the personality of an employee. Thus both training and development are equally important for career progression of an employee.
what is training and development

Purpose of Training and Development

There are many reasons for training and development. Some of these are:

  • to ensure that techniques and skills meet current needs
  • to ensure that techniques and skills are prepared to meet future needs

Importance of Training and Development

  • It optimises human resource utilization
  • It helps in increasing the productivity of the employees
  • It helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations
  • It helps to develop and improve the organisational health culture and effectiveness
  • It helps in building the positive perception and feeling about the organization
  • It helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life
  • It helps in improving the morale of the work force
  • It leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation

Methods of Training

  1. On-the-job Training: In this method, the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform it. The trainee learns under the guidance and supervision of the instructor. The trainee learns by observing and handling the job. Therefore, it is called learning by doing. The following techniques are used for on the job training of the employees:
    1. Coaching: It is a person to person interaction. The superior or expert in a particular area observe the performance of an employee closely and initiates corrective action. This technique focuses identifying weaknesses and finding the areas of improvement
    2. Mentoring: The junior employees are attached to seniors for training. . The seniors will provide guidance and understanding of various issues related to the organization, job performance techniques, culture and traditions, vision and mission, team work and group behavior, etc to the juniors
    3. Committee assignments: The employees are nominated as a member of committee to facilitate learning under this method. This method provides an opportunity for the employee to participate in decision making process, observe the activities of other members and investigate organizational problems
  2. Vestibule Training: n this method, a training centre called vestibule is set up and actual job conditions are simulated in it. Expert trainers are employed to provide training with the help of equipment and machines which are identical with those in use at the workplace
  3. Apprenticeship Training: In this method, theoretical instruction and practical training learning are provided to trainees in training institutes. In India, the Government has established Industrial Training Institutes for this purpose. The main aim is to develop all round craftsmen. Generally, a stipend is paid during the training period. Thus it is also known as “earn when you learn” scheme
  4. Classroom Training: Under this method, training is provided in company classrooms or in educational institutions. Lectures, Case studies, group discussions and audio visual aids are used to explain knowledge and skills to the trainees. Some Companies maintain their own training institutes or schools. Classroom training is suitable for teaching concepts and problem solving skills.
  5. Internship Training: It is basically a joint programme of training in which educational institutions and business firms cooperate. Selected candidates carry on regular studies for the prescribed period. They also work in some factory to acquire practical knowledge and skills. This method helps to provide a good balance between theory and practice. This method is used in professional work, i.e. MBBS, CA, ICWA, etc

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